The underlying biological deficit of diabetes is insulin action. In type 1 diabetes is the result of destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells by autoimmune disease.
Insulin deficiency impairs the metabolism of glucose in cells (in adipose tissue, muscle, liver). Process is inhibited, the proper use of glucose as an energy source and its storage. Are activated while the mechanisms for obtaining energy from alternative sources such as: proteins and fats. Glucose must not be used by the tissue in which glucose transport is dependent on insulin, therefore, increases its concentration in the blood, especially in the postprandial period. In addition, there is excessive hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis), and increases the release of glucagon as hyperglycemia further aggravates. If you are looking for something that can help cure diabetes condition, then try out diabetes free program by Dr David Pearson.
The adipose tissue is uncontrolled process of decomposition of fats into free fatty acids (lipolysis), which also inhibit glucose utilization by peripheral tissues such as muscle tissue. In diabetes, the disorder is also protein metabolism. Insulin deficiency leads to excessive catabolism (breakdown) to increase the level of protein and amino acids in the blood. They are also a source for the synthesis of glucose in the liver and kidney.
Under the conditions of the release of insulin deficit in excess of hormone antagonist leading to Catholicism of excess body’s needs. As a result of increasing hyperglycemia is exceeded the ability of the kidneys to absorb glucose. The so-called renal threshold is exceeded the sugar level over 180 mg / dl and causes the appearance of it in the urine (glycosuria). Because glucose is active compound this entails excessive water loss in the urine, resulting in a large amount of urine (polyuria). Together with water also occurs in the loss of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, phosphorus). Dehydration triggers a compensatory mechanism that is constant feeling of thirst (polydipsia). The widening of the deficit in the energy balance (weight loss, the destruction inclusive) results in an increased amount of food intake (polyphagia) – the effect of weight loss without caloric restriction.
In the state of insulin deficiency comes to compensating burning of fatty acids in the pathway ketogenzy, which results in the formation of ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate). These compounds are an alternative energy source for the brain, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle.
In diabetes, the excessive production of ketones is their ability tissues leads to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis. The resulting acetone is eliminated from the body in urine and exhaled air. Determination of the level of acetone in the urine and breath smell like decaying apples is indirect evidence of metabolic decrease in diabetes. There are various diet routines and tips that can help you to control diabetes as well.